Projection & neurotic transmission phenomena in
As Andrawis A, (2018) has described, projection in the general sense is colloquial language and means unconscious reproach. In psychoanalysis, this has a broader meaning and other goals. From a psychoanalytical point of view, projection is understood as neurotic transmission phenomena. The word projection contains affects of the inner psychic conflict. The emergence of emotions, desires and impulses stand in contradiction to each other. Projection was therefore originally developed from the theory of neurosis. In projection, people transfer unconscious affects to other people. This is a projection process that is carried into the outside world. These neurotic transmission phenomena are destructive and infantile behavior patterns of the unconscious. Transmission as a synonym uses only an experience from certain relationship realms in childhood. These projections are reactivated during the therapeutic process from the patient to his therapist or in the relationship between human beings. This becomes particularly clear in the chapter personality disorder. The projections can also be found in other psychological conflicts (Andrawis A, 2018).
Projection in psychoanalysis
The author describes that everything that we humans do not want to believe in ourselves is projected onto the other in forms of resistance. Unconsciously wishes, fears, feelings of guilt, impulses, own weaknesses, mistakes and “inner objects”, which cause offence, are split off from one’s own consciousness and transferred to objects in the outside world. This is a self-deception. One sees the other not as he is, but as one would like him to be (ibid.).
Introjection, identification and preservation of the external character of the object represents the “counter-movement” of the projection. Tendencies of the ego to take objects of the outside world and their properties from “outside” to “inside” Introjection and to transform the properties of other people into one’s own identification (Schuster P, Springer-Kremser M,1997).
In identification, “the identifying subject appropriates characteristics of the object in such a way that the subject experiences these characteristics as its own. The personalized psychological structures of the “I” and the “super-ego”, which have become independent of personal relationships, are created through identification (Schuster P, Springer-Kremser M, 1998, p. 17).
In preserving the external character of the object, the internalized object representations remain different from introjection and identification and their fate of the objects continues to be internalized as a foreign character. Example: A woman working in the secretarial department felt sexually harassed by a colleague. Although the colleague tried to avoid contact with her. Invited from the outside to make a statement, this situation gave rise to wishful thinking, the colleague wanted to make a request. The probability that he did not want any contact with her can be assumed that her wishes were projected into him. Another form of projection involves putting one’s own ideas into more powerful persons or beings to emphasize these justifications. This can be
described as a conflict of authority (Andrawis A, 2018).
Continuing the concept of projection, the concept of early childhood trauma is in the form of projective identification. The “object relationship theories”/representation of foreign objects (scapegoat) related to Melanie Klein’s school, her research topics on early childhood traumata as defense mechanisms are described and further developed. These forms of Projecting Processes are a goal of projection, which aims to align the expectation of the projected with the unconscious affects and to manipulate them. Here it is a matter of selective perception, therefore the form of projection is oriented only towards its perception of its own scale. One’s own imagination is therefore preferred. Interpersonal manipulation is even sufficiently necessary for the diagnosis of a projective identification (ibid.). There are two different reasons for the emergence of Projective Identification. On the one hand the interaction is part of the definition of projective identification of archaic defense mechanism and on the other hand of other mental disorders.
The unconscious, on the other hand, is a burial chamber, a depot where all repressions, injuries and embitterments that have never been uncovered or processed are stored. Fear is in the foreground when one tries to uncover the unconscious. Why is this the case? The fear wants to protect us from the painful uncovering, therefore it blocks our way to the unconscious.
For interpersonal communication this means that the relationship is threatened by affects and interpersonal relationships therefore perish. On a larger scale, wars can also be declared. This can be explained using the current example of religious fanaticism. Religious fanatics
show outwardly paranoid behaviour and due to the affects of the unconscious the inner and
the outer world cannot communicate (ibid.).As already mentioned, the unconscious can be presented as a burial chamber in which all
repressions are stored and their destructive infantile behaviour patterns, which manifest themselves in the various situations as syndrome or symptom, for example as transmission. A pattern of behaviour is established from the depot of the burial chamber, which is unconscious and is also carried to the outside. In psychoanalysis PA we call these outwardly carried patterns “transmission phenomena” (neurotic transmission) projection. These have a
negative influence on interpersonal relationships (ibid.).
– Karl König: (2007), Defense Mechanisms. Vanenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttigen Zürich Verlag.
– Stavros Mentzos: (1992), Neurotic Conflict Processing, Introduction to Psychoanalytic Neuroses with New Perspectives. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main Publishers.
– Mentzos Stavros, (2010): Neurotic conflict processing. Introduction to psychoanalytic neuroscience with consideration of new perspectives, Fischer Verlag.
– C G Jung: (1921,8.edition 1950), Psychological Types Quoted after GW6: §793
– C G Jung (1927-1950): The Structure of the Soul Quoted after GW8: §325
– C G Jung (1936 Archive. 1954): On the archetype with special reference to the Anima term. GW8: §111-147, references see GW /1:§ 120-22.
– C G Jung (1938-1954): The psychological aspects of the mother archetype. GW9/1: §148siee §172-183.
– Melanie K,( 1992): Life and Work , Phyllis Grosskurtth, ed. Klett-Cotta /J. G.
– Klein M, (2006): Das Seelenleben des Kleinkindes und andere Beiträge zur Psychoanalyse, Klett-Cotta Verlag.
Univ. Prof. Dr. Andrawis